Alarm Management Resources


A look into the control room of the Fukushima Dai-Ichi Unit 2 reactor!

I came across an interesting blog post the other day…

Talk about operating blind.  A great picture shows the status of the control room in the Fukushima Dai-Ichi Unit 2 reactor…Nothing is working (besides the lights)!

All of the computer monitors are blank. The clock is…

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Alarm Management and the Great American Solar Eclipse

Throughout history, total solar eclipses have been a significant event. In primitive societies, eclipses were viewed with fear or as important omens. In the US, the upcoming “Great American Solar Eclipse” is creating much excitement. From buying “official” eclipse-viewing glasses, to paying $1500 or more for…

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Alarm Management Goes Global with the Release of IEC 62682!

The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) has just published the first edition of IEC 62682 “Management of alarm systems for the process industries,” a global standard on alarm management. This new global standard was developed based on the ANSI/ISA-18.2 standard of the same name, which was published in 2009.…

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Alarm Rationalization is “Going Green (field)”

With the growing adoption of the ISA-18.2 standard on alarm management, industry leaders are increasingly implementing alarm management best practices (such as alarm rationalization) during the upfront design, before they start up control systems for new, “Greenfield” installation. There are numerous benefits. You think alarm overload and nuisance alarms are…

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Alarm Rationalization: Alarm Objective Analysis (AOA)

Todd Stauffer, Director of Alarm Management at exida, takes you through a key part of the Alarm Rationalization process called Alarm Objective Analysis (AOA).

You will learn how to determine what alarms you need (and which one’s you don’t), how to eliminate nuisance alarms, and safely reduce the number of…

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Claiming alarms as an independent protection layer (IPL)

An interesting question arose recently when creating an FSM plan:

Does the ISA-18.2 standard on alarm management address the claiming of the operator’s response to alarms as a layer of protection?

Not specifically, however the ISA-18.2 standard does require that alarms are rationalized, and that alarm system performance is…

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Do you have class?

Are alarm classes defined in your alarm philosophy document (APD) as required by the ISA-18.2 standard? The use of classes (classification) is a new alarm management concept for many. If your APD was created before June 2009, chances are alarm classes are not defined.

Alarm classification

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Help Your Operators Defeat the Situation Awareness Demons!

Contrary to what you might have guessed, the “Defeat of the Situation Awareness Demons” is not a new video game on XBOX or Playstation. It is a set of eight (8) factors which undermine effective Situation Awareness. It can be applied to operators in process plants to characterize human error…

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How do You Compare?

Industry Benchmark Survey on Alarms as Safeguards and Independent Protection Layers (IPLs)

exida recently conducted an industry benchmark survey on the practices for the use of alarms as safeguards and IPLs. With over 200 safety practitioners from around the world providing responses, you can use the survey findings to compare…

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How to become a world-class expert (the 10,000 hour rule)

In the book “Outliers”, Malcolm Gladwell popularized the notion that to become an expert in a field requires putting in 10,000 hours of practice.

The emerging picture from studies of expertise is that ten thousand hours of practice is required to reach the level of mastery associated with being a…

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Human Factors in Alarm Management


Which one of these layers of protection (operator response to alarm, relief valves, dikes, and safety instrumented systems) is not like the other? 


Operator response to alarm (Operator Intervention), because of the “Human” factor.

It is very difficult to calculate the probability of…

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New Version of ISA-18.2 Alarm Management Standard Is Released (2016)

The new and updated version of the ISA-18.2 standard (ANSI/ISA-18.2-2016, Management of Alarm Systems for the Process Industries) has now been officially released. This supersedes the original edition (2009). The new version incorporates feedback from 6+ years in the "field" and includes some updates based on the IEC 62682 international…

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New Working Group (WG7) Formed for Alarm Management

The ISA-18.2 committee on alarm management has launched a new working group (WG7) that is focused on developing a standard, recommended practice, or technical report on the application of alarm management to process plants utilizing multiple packaged equipment systems. The work will be based on and complement the existing Read More of This Blog    

Nuisance Alarms and “The Boy Who Cried Wolf”

The purpose of an alarm is pretty straightforward - to draw the operator’s attention to an abnormal situation that requires action in order to prevent an undesired consequence. Alarms that don’t meet this principle often become nuisance alarms. A nuisance alarm is defined as:

“an alarm that annunciates excessively, unnecessarily,…

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Rationalize Your Alarm Management Problems Away

Alarm Overload…Nuisance Alarms…Alarm Floods…Incorrectly Prioritized Alarms…. These alarm management problems are all too common in the modern Distributed Control System (DCS).

Why is this?  In the “olden” days (read panel boards and alarm lightboxes), there was considerable thought put into what alarms were necessary because there was limited real estate…

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Should DCS Alarms be shown on P&IDs?

Alarms were originally shown on Piping and Instrumentation Diagrams / Drawings (P&IDs) to document hardware requirements for installation in a (panelboard) control room. This was important because there was limited real estate in the control room for the alarms (displayed on Panalarms and light boxes) and there was a real…

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The Crossroads of Alarm Management and Process Safety

Recently I was reading The Manufacturing Operations Technology Viewpoints blog and came across an interest post on Alarm Management that cites exida’s Alarm Management cheat sheet.  The blog post entitled The Crossroads of Alarm Management and Process Safety is a great summary for any one who…

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To Be an Alarm…Or Not to Be?

That is the question.

When your alarm does not meet the definition as defined in the ISA-18.2 standard and/or the criteria established in your alarm philosophy document, it is not an alarm.

By ISA-18.2 definition “an alarm is an audible and /or visible means of indicating…

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What do Nuisance Alarms, the 80-20 Rule, Mental Models, and More Have in Common?

Most everyone has heard of the “80-20 rule”.  It asserts that for many situations, roughly 80% of the effects (outcomes) come from 20% of the causes (inputs).  This rule was first proposed in the early 1900s by Vilfredo Pareto, who was an Italian engineer, sociologist, economist, political scientist, philosopher, and…

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When is an Independent Protection Layer (IPL) Not a Safeguard?

We are going to continue discussing the results from exida’s recently published industry benchmark survey on the practices for the use of alarms as safeguards and IPLs. Over 200 safety practitioners from around the world provided responses. This entry will discuss the relationship between alarms identified as safeguards and those…

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5 Years and Counting: The ISA-18.2 Alarm Management Standard

June 2014 marks the 5th Anniversary of the release of the ISA-18.2 standard on alarm management, which defines the requirements (aka “the What”) that companies in the process industry must follow. This webinar will provide an update on the state of alarm management, 5 years after the release of ISA-18.2. It will also discuss the “the How” – How to create an effective and sustainable alarm management program that complies with the standard. It covers key topics such as benchmarking of alarm system performance, creation of an alarm philosophy document, alarm rationalization, alarm suppression, and creation of alarm response procedures.

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Alarm Classification – Not all alarms are created equal!

Alarm classification is a process for grouping alarms that have a common set of requirements for areas like training, maintenance, testing, management of change, and reporting. It could, for example be used to identify Safety (Related) alarms that are used for functional safety purposes. Classification is also a required output of alarm rationalization per the ISA-18.2 and IEC 62682 alarm management standards. Despite this, many alarm management projects ignore classification or misinterpret what it is to be used for (it’s not the same as alarm priority or alarm type). Additionally the usage and benefit of Highly Managed Alarms (HMA) is not well understood.

This presentation will review the purpose of alarm classification, how to define alarm classes, and how to assign alarms to classes. It will also discuss the origin and purpose of Highly Managed Alarms, and their associated requirements. Lastly it will present application examples of classification (including “Safety Alarms”) and the benefits that can be realized by end users.

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Alarm Management 101: Everything You Want to Know, But Are Afraid to Ask

If you are just getting started with alarm management or need a refresher, then this webinar is for you. We will cover the most important concepts and principles of alarm management as taken from industry standards (ISA-18.2, IEC 62682) and guidelines (EEMUA 191, ASM). Tune in to learn the following:

Why there are so many alarms configured in a typical system
How to determine when an alarm is needed (and when it is not appropriate)
How to determine when alarms are redundant
How to define a useful limit for an alarm (alarm setpoint)
How to manage alarms that are special (such as those used for safety)
How many alarms can an operator get (and still do their job)
How to let the operator know which alarm to respond to first
How to let the operator know what action to take for an alarm
How to determine whether you have alarm management issues
How to make sure the alarm occurs only when it is supposed to

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Alarm Rationalization – The Key to an Effective Alarm System

Modern control systems make it easy (maybe too easy) to add alarms without significant effort, cost, or consideration for whether they are truly needed. This has led to alarm systems that often hinder, rather than help, operators by subjecting them to nuisance alarms, alarm floods, incorrectly prioritized alarms, and general alarm overload. Alarm rationalization, a proven alarm management technique and one of the stages of ISA-18.2/IEC 62682 alarm management lifecycle, can help address these issues and create an effective alarm system that better supports the operator.

If you have ever wondered how to determine when and if an alarm is needed, then this webinar is for you. It will also talk about how to establish an effective alarm limit, how to determine the importance of an alarm, and how to assign it to a class. It will show how key results of rationalization (including the cause, consequence and corrective action of each alarm) can be used to create operator response procedures which help operators respond more quickly and consistently to each alarm. Finally it will show how the use of a tool, such as exida’s SILAlarm, can effectively guide newcomers through the rationalization process.

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Benchmarking Industry Practices for the Use of Alarms as Safeguards and Layers of Protection

This webinar discusses current industry practices around the use of alarms as safeguards and layers of protection as established by a recent benchmark survey of over 200 safety practitioners from around the world. Areas explored in the survey and will be discussed include:

  Typical and maximum claimed risk reduction
  Considerations used to determine whether an alarm can be credited with risk reduction
  How often IPL alarms are determined to be invalid or ineffective in operation
  Practices for display and annunciation through a Human Machine Interface (HMI)

Key results and conclusions will also be presented as well as recommendations on where industry should focus on improvement.

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DeltaV Alarm Management Solutions: Following the Alarm Management Lifecycle

This webinar presents how to create an alarm management continuous improvement program for Emerson DeltaV System Owners that follows the ISA-18.2 alarm management lifecycle. Tools will be demonstrated to analyze alarm system performance and pinpoint poorly performing alarms (DeltaV Analyze), rationalize the poor performers (SILAlarm), and automatically update the DeltaV configuration with the new alarm settings (priority, limit, hysteresis, suppression time, etc.). It also illustrates how operator alarm response procedures (containing the cause, consequence, corrective action, and time to respond) can be created automatically from the rationalization results and made available to the operator online using DeltaV Alarm Help.

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Financial Benefits of Creating an Effective Alarm Management Program

With increased focus on risk management and regulatory compliance, companies are looking to develop and implement alarm management programs that follow good engineering practices and improve operations. But where to start? This webinar will discuss a seven-step program, based on the ISA-18.2 alarm management lifecycle, which drives continuous improvement without overtaxing your plant resources. Specific topics include:

· developing an alarm philosophy

· alarm rationalization

· implementing designed suppression and alarm shelving

· creation of alarm response procedures

· monitoring & assessment of alarm system performance

It will also show the quantifiable business results that can be achieved from an effective alarm management program.

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Going Green: Alarm Management for Greenfield Projects

Alarm Management was often neglected in the past until after installation and commissioning of the control system. This led to alarm overload, nuisance alarms, turning off of the alarm system, and some dangerous start-ups. It is no longer acceptable in today’s environment for many end users to start up without having applied alarm management best practices beforehand (e.g., EEMUA 191 and ISA-18.2). It is becoming increasingly common to perform alarm rationalization, a process for determining which alarms are valid / necessary and documenting their priority / limit / cause / consequence / corrective action, early in a project such as during FEED.

This webinar will present:

  • A brief overview on the “state” of alarm management
  • Discuss some of the challenges of applying alarm management to Greenfield projects when the process design (P&IDs), safety design (HAZOP, LOPA), and control system configuration are taking place in parallel
  • Will highlight how to manage alarms when they are used as safeguards and layers of protection

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How to Create an Alarm Philosophy Document

Creation of an alarm philosophy document is the cornerstone for development and sustainability of an effective alarm management program and the first stage in the ISA-18.2 alarm management lifecycle. The alarm philosophy document establishes the guidelines for how to address all aspects of alarm management at a site - including roles & responsibilities, rationalization, design, operations, maintenance, testing, training, and management of change. This webinar will discuss one successful methodology for creating a philosophy that minimizes the time and resource commitment of plant personnel. It will also review some of the key content that should be included and the typical decisions that must be made when creating the document.

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ISA-18.2-  Setting a new Standard in Alarm Management

ISA-18.2-  Setting a new Standard in Alarm Management

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Making the Most of Alarms as a Layer of Protection

Making the Most of Alarms as a Layer of Protection

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Master the Basics of Alarm Management: A Review of the Best Practices in ISA-TR18.2.3-2015

This webinar will review the best practices documented in TR3 – Basic Alarm Design, one of the series of technical reports created to supplement the ISA-18.2 standard on alarm management. Application of basic alarm design techniques, such as alarm deadband and on/off delay have been shown to significantly reduce alarm load on the operator (by 45 – 90% in one study). The webinar will discuss the best practices around the use of deadband, on / off delay, and PV filtering. Other areas of discussion include the use of alarm states in control logic, re-alarming, alarm latching, and considerations for selecting the appropriate alarm type.

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Master the Destiny of Your Alarm System with a Master Alarm Database

The adoption of standards on alarm management (ISA-18.2 and IEC 62682) have introduced a new term into the lexicon of automation professionals - the “master alarm database,” which is defined as the “authorized list of rationalized alarms and associated attributes.” In this webinar we will talk about what a master alarm database (MADB) is, how one is created, what information it should/could contain, how it can be used to create alarm response procedures, and how it can be integrated into a management of change process. We will also look at how it can be used to document the results of alarm rationalization (e.g., alarm priority, classification, limit, cause, consequence, and corrective action) and other useful design data (e.g., safe operating limits, associated interlocks, maximum design temperatures/pressures). Additionally the webinar will examine how the MADB can be used as the source for updating the control system with the optimized alarm settings resulting from rationalization.

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Maximizing the Reliability of Operator Response to Alarms

“Closing the Holes in the Swiss Cheese Model”

Layers of protection for abnormal event management can be modeled as slices of swiss cheese according to James Reason. An operator’s response to an alarm is one of the first layers of protection to prevent a hazard from escalating to an incident. This presentation discusses a two-part approach to maximizing the operator’s reliability when responding to abnormal situations (“closing the holes in the swiss cheese layer”).

The first part focuses on following the best practices in the alarm management standards ANSI/ISA-18.2-2016 and IEC 62682. Examples include alarm rationalization to ensure all alarms are meaningful and to capture “tribal knowledge”, prioritization to help operators determine which alarms are most critical, alarm classification, monitoring of alarm system performance metrics, and creation of alarm response procedures. The second part addresses the impact of human factors on operator performance; including how nuisance alarms and alarm floods can lead to errant mental models, attention tunneling, misplaced salience and overall loss of situation awareness. We will also discuss how often “operator error” is really the underlying cause of alarm management incidents.

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Nuisance Alarms – A menace to the Operator

Nuisance alarms are alarms that don’t meet the definition or purpose of an alarm according to the ISA-18.2 / IEC 62682 alarm management standards. Defined as alarms that annunciate excessively, unnecessarily, or do not return to normal after the correct response is taken, nuisance alarms can be the operator’s worst nightmare. They can clutter the alarm summary display, increase operator stress, desensitize the operator, and cause them to lose situation awareness. Nuisance alarms can create a culture where it becomes necessary and acceptable for operators to ignore alarms.

This presentation will discuss the dangers of nuisance alarms from a human factors point of view and will discuss techniques for eliminating them (rationalization), as well as handling them when they occur (alarm shelving). It will talk about how nuisance alarms affect operator decision making and how to change a culture where the ignoring of alarms has become standard practice.

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Safety Alarms: At the Intersection of Alarm Management and Functional Safety

“Safety Alarms” (aka Safety Related Alarms) are commonly used as safeguards or independent protection layers to prevent the escalation of hazardous scenarios. Despite this simple purpose, there is a wide range in the interpretation of what a safety alarm is, its requirements and how it should be managed. Some schools of thought advocate that safety alarms have a risk reduction > 10 and must be implemented in a safety instrumented system (SIS) that is compliant with IEC 61511. Others would say that all alarms implemented in an SIS are safety alarms. Still others would say that safety alarms can be implemented in a BPCS, and they may be assigned a risk reduction factor ≤ 10.

This webinar will highlight the current “body of knowledge” contained in ISA-18.2, EEMUA 191, UK HSE’s OG47, IEC 61511, and ISA-84. It will also discuss where industry is heading in terms of new guidance, interpretations, and requirements. Organizations such as the UK HSE, NAMUR, and ISA are updating existing guidelines or developing new ones. ISA is developing a new standard on Safety Controls, Alarms and Interlocks (ISA-84-91.03).

This webinar will discuss how to identify what is a safety alarm (and what this means to the end user). It will also discuss how risk reduction, safety integrity level, identification as a safeguard or independent protection layer, and use as a mitigation or prevention barrier, impacts requirements.

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Seven Steps to an Effective Alarm Management Program

Are your operators overloaded with alarms or do they ignore nuisance alarms? Do you want to improve your alarm management practices, but don’t know where to start? This presentation discusses how to create an effective and sustainable program using the alarm management lifecycle of the IEC 62682 / ISA-18.2 standards. This unique seven-step process can be applied to brownfield and greenfield applications, independent of control system platform. It includes steps for benchmarking initial performance and identifying systematic issues, developing an alarm philosophy, performing alarming rationalization and implementing the results, creating alarm response procedures, applying advanced alarming techniques, measuring ongoing performance, and performing audits to ensure system integrity.

The presentation will show how following the program will allow you to address common alarm management issues (alarm overload, nuisance alarms, alarm floods, incorrectly prioritized alarms) and create a control room environment that maximizes operator performance, improves process safety, and drives operational discipline. Examples will be taken from multiple control system platforms including Emerson DeltaV, Rockwell PlantPAx, Honeywell Experion, Yokogawa Centum, and Siemens PCS 7.

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The Philosophy Behind an Effective Alarm System

A first step in developing an effective alarm management program is often the development of an alarm philosophy document that complies with the ISA-18.2 / IEC 62682 standards on alarm management. In this webinar we will look at how to build a philosophy that complies with the requirements and recommendations of the standards, leverages the capabilities of your control system, and is tailored to the way you operate your plant. The webinar will also highlight important alarm management requirements (e.g., classification, alarm shelving, prioritization, alarm suppression, alarm response procedures, and maintenance) and will discuss the considerations and best practices associated with each.

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Understanding the Alarm Management Lifecycle of ISA-18.2/IEC 62682

The concept of an alarm management lifecycle was first introduced with the ISA-18.2 standard. It has been reaffirmed with the release of the IEC 62682 international standard on alarm management. In this webinar we will examine the stages of the lifecycle to understand the key activities, requirements, and recommendations in each. We will also show how following the alarm management lifecycle can address common alarm management issues such as nuisance alarms, stale alarms, alarm floods, alarm overload and incorrectly prioritized alarms. We will review how to use the lifecycle to create an effective alarm management program that is sustainable and effective over time.

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White Papers


Poor alarm management is one of the leading causes of unplanned downtime, contributing to over $20B in lost production every year, and of major industrial incidents such as the one in Texas City. Developing good alarm management practices is not a discrete activity, but more of a continuous process (i.e., it is more of a journey than a destination). This paper will describe the new ISA-18.2 standard -“Management of Alarm Systems for the Process Industries”. This standard provides a framework and methodology for the successful design, implementation, operation and management of alarm systems and will allow end-users to address one of the fundamental conclusions of Bransby and Jenkinson that “Poor performance costs money in lost production and plant damage and weakens a very important line of defense against hazards to people.” Following a lifecycle model will help users systematically address all phases of the journey to good alarm management. This paper will provide an overview of the new standard and the key activities that are contained in each step of the lifecycle.

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Get a Life(cycle)! Connecting Alarm Management and Safety Instrumented Systems

Alarms and operator response are one of the first layers of defense in preventing a plant upset from escalating into an abnormal situation. The new ISA 18.2 standard on alarm management recommends following a lifecycle approach similar to the existing ISA84/IEC 61511 standard on functional safety. This paper will highlight where these lifecycles interact and overlap, as well as how to address them holistically. Specific examples within ISA 18 will illustrate where the output of one lifecycle is used as input to the other, such as when alarms identified as a safeguards during a process hazards analysis (PHA) are used as an input to alarm identification and rationalization. The paper will also provide recommendations on how to integrate the safety and alarm management lifecycles.

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Implement an Effective Alarm Management Program

Apply the ISA-18.2 Standard on Alarm Management to design, implement, and maintain an effective alarm system.

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Make some Alarming Moves

Tackle distractions that impair operator performance and process efficiency.

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Managing Alarms to Support Operational Discipline

Process alarms, coupled with operator action, are frequently cited as a safeguard in a Process Hazard Analysis (PHA) and an Independent Protection Layers (IPL) in a Layer of Protection Analysis (LOPA), but does the alarm management system really support the safeguard/IPL?

According to ISA-18.2 / IEC 62682 an alarm must indicate an equipment malfunction, process deviation, or abnormal condition that requires a timely operator action. If no action is taken, then the alarm is either invalid or the operator is not doing their job. Both scenarios represent a breakdown in operational discipline for alarm management as does the presence of nuisance alarms and alarm floods. This breakdown in operational discipline for alarms has been cited as a contributing factor in many significant safety incidents, some of which will be analyzed in this paper. If operational discipline for alarms is lacking, then it is very possible that the desired risk reduction for a process alarm used as an IPL will not be achieved and the probability of an ineffective operator response will increase.

As systems have evolved from hardwire to computer control, alarms have become easier and less expensive to implement leading to more and less purposeful alarms. Operators must contend with multiple alarms at one time with only their experience to determine priority. Alarms may be added to or removed from a control system without proper management of change. Systems may include alarms for which there is no possible action, or inadequate action time. What can an organization do to take control of their process alarms and improve operational discipline? 

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Maximizing the Reliability of Operator Response to Alarms

Layers of protection for abnormal event management can be modeled as slices of swiss cheese according to James Reason [1]. An operator’s response to an alarm is one of the first layers of protection to prevent a hazard from escalating to an incident. This paper will present best practices for maximizing the operator’s reliability for understanding and responding to abnormal situations as adapted from the alarm management standards ANSI/ISA-18.2-2016 and IEC 62682. Examples include alarm rationalization to ensure all alarms are meaningful and to capture “tribal knowledge”, prioritization to help operators determine which alarms are most critical, and creation of alarm response procedures. The treatment of safety alarms, which are those that are deemed critical to process safety or to the protection of human life or the environment, will be specifically highlighted.

The paper will also discuss key human factors considerations for maximizing operator situation awareness (SA) by preventing SA “demons”; such as developing an errant mental model of the process, attention tunneling, data overload, and misplaced salience. As such the resolution of issues which inhibit operator performance, such as nuisance alarms and alarm floods, will also be discussed. 

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Plug the Holes in the Swiss Cheese Model

Stop using operator error as an excuse. Apply human factors considerations to improve your alarm system and help operators respond to alarms effectively.

Alarms play a significant role in maintaining plant safety by notifying operators of an equipment malfunction, process deviation, or abnormal conditions that requires a timely response . Alarms are one of the first layers of protection for preventing a hazard from escalating to an incident or accident. They work in conjunction with other independent protection layers (IPLs) such as relief valves, dikes, and safety instrumented systems (SIS). 

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Saved by the Bell: Using Alarm Management to make Your Plant Safer

Recent industrial accidents at Texas City, Buncefield (UK) and Institute, WV have highlighted the connection between poor alarm management and process safety incidents. At Texas City key level alarms failed to notify the operator of the unsafe and abnormal conditions that existed within the tower and blowdown drum. The resulting explosion and fire killed 15 people and injured 180 more.1 The tank overflow and resultant fire at the Buncefield Oil Depot resulted in a £1 billion (1.6 billion USD) loss. It could have been prevented if the tank’s high level safety switch, per design, had notified the operator of the high level condition or had automatically shut off the incoming flow.2 At the Bayer facility (Institute, WV) improper procedures, worker fatigue, and lack of operator training on a new control system caused the residue treater to be overcharged with Methomyl - leading to an explosion and chemical release.

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Tips for Starting an Alarm Management Program

Using the ISA-18.2 standard can help process engineers understand, simplify, and implement a sustainable alarm management program.

Congratulations. You’ve been assigned the task of establishing an alarm management program for your facility. So where and how do you begin? This article presents four practical tips for starting an effective and sustainable alarm management program that
conforms to the tenets of a relatively new process industry standard for alarm management published by ISA.

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Using Alarms as a Layer of Protection

Alarms and operator response to them are one of the first layers of protection in preventing a plant upset from escalating into a hazardous event. This paper discusses how to evaluate and maximize the risk reduction (or minimize the probability of failure on demand) of this layer when it is considered as part of a layer of protection analysis (LOPA).

The characteristics of a valid layer of protection (Specific, Auditable, Independent and Dependable) will be reviewed to examine how each applies to alarms and operator response. Considerations for how to assign probability of failure on demand (PFD) will be discussed, including the key factors that contribute to it (e.g., operator’s time to respond, training, human factors, and the reliability of the alarm annunciation / system response). The effect of alarm system performance issues (such as nuisance alarms and alarm floods) on operator dependability (and probability of failure on demand) will be reviewed. Key recommendations will be drawn from the ISA-18.2 standard “Management of Alarm Systems for the Process Industries”.

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When Good Alarms Go Bad: Learnings from Incidents

Some of the significant process industries incidents occurred by overflowing vessels, including BP Texas City and Buncefield.  In many overflow incidents, alarms were designed to signal the need for operator intervention. These alarms may have been identified as safeguards or layers of protection, but they did not succeed in preventing the incident.  This paper reviews several overflow incidents to consider the alarm management and human factors elements of the failures.

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You Asked: Alarm Management

Setting a new Standard for Performance, Safety, and Reliability with ISA-18.2

Alarm Management affects both the bottom line and plant safety. A well- functioning alarm system can help a process run closer to its ideal operating point – leading to higher yields, reduced production costs, increased throughput, and higher quality, all of which add up to higher profits. Poor alarm management, on the other hand, is one of the leading causes of unplanned downtime and has been a major contributor to some of the worst industrial safety accidents on record.

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Case Studies

Alarm Management Solution

exida worked with Ashland to Implement an Alarm Management Program that Makes the Alarm System More Useful during an Upset and Addresses the Loss of Experienced Operators.

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