In order to assign a SIL to equipment in low demand applications, we must be able to compute PFDavg. To compute PFDavg, we must first have a model for λD(t), the failure rate of the equipment in the dangerous failure mode. A dangerous failure occurs when equipment designed for prevention or mitigation of an unsafe condition cannot properly respond to the unsafe condition, i.e., the equipment fails on demand. For example, consider a PRV, which, in normal operation, is closed. Should it fail in the “stuck-shut” mode, it would be in a state of dangerous failure as it would be unable to respond to an overpressure event if one occurred.