Common cause susceptibility is the enemy of redundancy. Typically when adding redundancy, there is only limited benefit from a PFDavg perspective, simply due to accounting for common cause. Increasing the common cause factor tends to have a negative impact on PFDavg, at least in a standard 1oo2 configuration. In some cases increasing common cause will actually decrease the PFDavg, thereby arguably making a configuration safer by having a higher susceptibility to common cause. This is counter intuitive when only looking within the PFDavg context. This webinar will discuss common cause and review what the impact is on different voting architectures.