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Back to Basics: Failure Rates - λDD

Back to Basics: Failure Rates - λDD

The Greek symbol  λDD is the detectable dangerous failure rate in functional safety expressed in the unit of measurement of FITs which can be determined through FMEDAs. (FITs (λ) are failures per billion hours, expressed by 10-9 hours).

Lambda DD

λDD is the number of…

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Risk Management in the News

Risk Management in the News

I just read a great article in the May issue of IEEE Spectrum magazine called “Managing Risk and Responsibility During a Crisis.”  The author Robert N. Charette says “If the American people desire the federal government to be their risk manager of first resort, then an open and…

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What is Prior Use Justification?

What is Prior Use Justification?

When it comes to IEC61511 and the selection of equipment for use within Safety Instrumented Systems (SIS) and Safety Instrumented Functions (SIF), there are only two methods that can be used to justify selection: IEC61508 Certified devices for the required SIL or Prior Use Justification.  Just…

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Know Your Human Error (Part I)

Know Your Human Error (Part I)

Increases in levels of automation and system complexity impact human error. Medical errors in hospitals and clinics result in approximately 100,000 people dying each year and cost the healthcare industry between $4B – $20B each year. In the petrochemical industries, operational error can cost upwards of $80M per incident. “Operator error”…

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Back to Basics: Failure Rates - λDU

Back to Basics: Failure Rates - λDU

The Greek symbol  λDU is the undetectable dangerous failure rate in functional safety expressed in the unit of measurement of FITs which can be determined through FMEDAs. (FITs (λ) are failures per billion hours, expressed by 10-9 hours).

λDU is the number of dangerous undetected failures…

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Grasping the Power of the (Stuxnet) Virus (or What I did during the COVID-19 Pandemic)

Grasping the Power of the (Stuxnet) Virus (or What I did during the COVID-19 Pandemic)

The travel and group meeting restrictions from COVID-19 have allowed me to catch up on some reading about viruses; not the type that get transmitted to humans. This article is about the Stuxnet virus and what I learned from the book “Countdown to Zero Day: Stuxnet and the Launch of…

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What’s inside a COVID-19 Ventilator?

What’s inside a COVID-19 Ventilator?

At exida, we just finished a Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) on a medical ventilator. This was done for a new manufacturer who needed independent design verification.  It was a fascinating job.  We found lots of pneumatic devices very similar if not identical to the kind used in…

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With Many Automation Professionals Working From Home Cybersecurity Exposure is Rising

With Many Automation Professionals Working From Home Cybersecurity Exposure is Rising

One of the commonly targeted pathways into an Industrial Automation and Control System (IACS) is through compromised remote access such as Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) and Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP). During the Stay at Home Orders and other self-quarantining measures around the globe to combat the COVID-19 pandemic, many…

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10 Years After, Has Anything Been Learned from Deepwater Horizon?

10 Years After, Has Anything Been Learned from Deepwater Horizon?

It’s hard to believe that it’s been 10 years since the Deepwater Horizon incident on April 20th 2010.  Even today, the Gulf Coast is still feeling the effects.  In its latest estimates, BP is looking at a total loss of $65Bn USD, in settlements, fines and compensation.  This latest estimate was published in…

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Which Measure (Rationalized or Annunciated) is More Important?

Which Measure (Rationalized or Annunciated) is More Important?

Get your priorities (distribution) straight

A very common question is posed during alarm management training.  Does the recommended alarm priority distribution of ~5% / ~15% / ~80% for high / medium / low priority alarms apply to the rationalized alarm priority distribution (as configured in the control system) or to the annunciatedalarm priority distribution…

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Back to Basics: Failure Rates - λD

Back to Basics: Failure Rates - λD

The Greek symbol  λD represents dangerous failure rates in functional safety, usually expressed in the unit of measurement of FITs, and can be determined through FMEDAs. (FITs (λ) are failures per billion hours, expressed by 10-9 hours).

λD is the number of dangerous failures per…

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Training in 2020 and Beyond.  Adapting to COVID-19 with Online Solutions.
  • by Rick Smith
  • Tuesday, March 31, 2020
  • News

Training in 2020 and Beyond.  Adapting to COVID-19 with Online Solutions.

Bow Ties Part II: Do Bow Ties have a place in Alarm Management?

Bow Ties Part II: Do Bow Ties have a place in Alarm Management?

As discussed in Part I, bow tie diagrams provide an easy-to-understand visual representation of risk management information (hazards, potential consequences, barriers, degradation factors and controls). In this article we examine the applicability of bow ties to alarm management.

According to the CCPS book “Bow Ties in Risk Management”,…

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Back to Basics: Failure Rates - λ

Back to Basics: Failure Rates - λ

The Greek symbol lambda, λ, represents failure rates in functional safety, usually expressed in the unit of measurement of FITS.

λ can be expressed as a total failure rate for a device (λT), or it can be broken down into more specific groupings:

  • Safe detected (λSD)
  • Safe undetected (λSU)
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The CFSE Exam is Now Offered Online!
  • by Ted Stewart, CFSP, exidaCSP
  • Tuesday, March 17, 2020
  • Certification

The CFSE Exam is Now Offered Online!